Psychoanalysis concomitantly implies a trinity of meanings, comprised of the method of investigating the mind (the unconscious), the therapy of neuroses inspired by the above-mentioned method, and the self-standing psychoanalytical discipline based on the knowledge accumulated through the careful application of the investigation method and through clinical experimentation. To put it differently, psychoanalysis is a specific technique of investigating the mind and a therapeutic practice inspired by this technique. The novelty of Freud’s concepts resided in the recognition of the importance of unconscious psychological processes.

According to Freud (2001), under the influence of the unconscious, thoughts, and feelings that seem inextricably tied to each other can dissociate and move apart, until the climax of a conflictual state is achieved. According to Erich Fromm (1992), psychoanalysis as a therapeutic method works on the assumption that unprocessed childhood experiences of a certain gravity are pushed aside into the unconscious because otherwise, the child’s immature personality could not be able to withstand the conflictual experience. No child can endure, for instance, that he/she is unwanted by one of the parents, thus resulting in the development of certain pathologies. Psychoanalysis aims to direct the patient to the point of healing by allowing his/her conflictual states, deeply repressed in the unconscious, to emerge to the surface of consciousness. It is necessary that these states be brought to consciousness in order for them to be integrated into one’s own personality. Their bringing forth into consciousness and their acceptance as a part of the personality and of an individual’s life history are achieved with the aid of the psychoanalyst, during the psychoanalysis hours. Psychoanalysis is a long term therapy, sometimes even lasting for years, bearing in mind that it aspires to reach the most remote points of the human mind and bring into the light truths that the individual him/herself avoids or runs away from.

Short overview:

The one who founded psychoanalysis and who still remains the symbol of classical psychoanalysis is Sigmund Freud. With a medical background (he was a neurologist), Freud wanted to find healing methods for his patients that exhibited neurotic symptoms. Thus, beginning with the year 1890, Freud starts exploring the unconscious mechanisms that are at the core of many mundane actions and behaviors of people with neurotic symptoms and regular people alike. Freud realized that the answers must be found somewhere in the experiences of childhood that, even if not consciously remembered by individuals, are being stored in their unconscious, from where they are acting to influence the individual in pathological ways. Freud refers to sexual drives from early childhood and to psycho-sexual phases of development in children (oral, anal, phallic-oedipal), shedding light on a subject that was rather difficult to digest at the time by his contemporaries. However, his theories catch on and shortly become massively popular. Freud develops his theories and psychoanalysis as a healing method.

After him, many schools of psychoanalysis have been formed, presently numbering 22 different psychoanalytical orientations across the world. Psychoanalysis continues to be appreciated in many countries across America and Europe, as psychological theory and healing methods alike. It can be rightfully stated that psychoanalysis was the cornerstone of modern psychotherapy and surely each school of psychological thought that followed recognizes this merit.

Psychoanalysis – a long-term therapeutic method:

As a therapeutic method, classical psychoanalysis functions as follows:

With the psychoanalyst’s aid, the patient will escalate the problems that he/she is going through by making incursions into his/her unconscious and analyzing its products. Dreams failed acts, fantasies, resistances – all have something to communicate about the patient and his problems.

What the meaning of a certain dream is or why a patient said another word than what he/she intended (failed act) will be uncovered during analysis. For these, it is essential for the analyst to want to achieve progress, to fully devote him/herself, and have great trust in his/her analyst (if not, he/she may renounce therapy at the first sign of resistance). At the same time, it is good to know that psychoanalysis is a therapy with a long duration, with life-long results. Implicitly, the investment of time and money is bound to be of the same caliber. Even if it may not seem complicated, psychoanalysis is much more than laying on a couch – a cliché regarding psychotherapy – and speaking about your feelings towards your mother. It needs sustained exploring together with the therapist, who asks questions, clarifies what the patient says and does (resistances, dream symbols, etc.). The two form a team, and with the development of psychoanalysis, it can be stated that the cold, clinical relationship, in which visual contact between the analyst and the analyzed was almost completely absent, has become a much warmer and personal one (see modern psychoanalysis that puts the accent on sustaining the client and on empathy (see Kohut)).

The applicability of psychoanalysis has been proven in the treatment of children as well, not being limited to adults suffering from various mental health disturbances (Wallerstein, 2000). Moreover, it can also be applied to the analysis of various artistic products, from music to film, books, and even paintings. Speaking from the psychoanalytical perspective, any human product contains an unconscious dimension that has to lead to its apparition, a dimension that a well-prepared psychoanalyst or an individual interested in the study of psychoanalysis can uncover.

Closing, it must be stated that psychoanalysis is not a universal treatment and that not all conditions can be healed through it. Medication is oftentimes necessary, however, in certain phases of conditions (when the gravity is not that great) or with certain conditions that are only solvable through therapy, psychoanalysis can prove to be of real help. The most recommended pathologies to be approached with psychoanalytical treatment are: sexual or couple dysfunctions (erectile or orgasm dysfunctions etc.), character issues (shame, workaholism, meanness, hyper-emotionality, etc) as well as phobias, compulsion disorders, obsessions, and even anxiety and depressive disorders. Only a highly trained psychoanalyst can help a person in finding the cure. Even though the results are not immediately visible and oftentimes the resistances met are quite great (bearing in mind that repressed feelings are being pulled into the conscious), the effort is surely worth it. You only need determination and the conviction that once you take your first step on this road, you are ready to fully invest in it.

If you’re interested in learning more about psychology and how psychological therapy can help you, visit Estadt Psychological Services.

How to Use a Green Screen Background In Your Next Video Production

Virtual studios are useful in a wide range of situations . By utilizing a virtual studio for your video production, you have the ability to place your talent in any type of backdrop and to update your background with ease. Whether you are using your video for a tradeshow, podcast, product demonstration or news, a virtual set will allow you to create an easy and inexpensive video production.

Today, I will show you how to use a virtual studio with Adobe After Effects. The techniques we examine in this tutorial can also be applied to a number of other non-linear editors that allow you to remove green screen from video footage (many do allow this). Everything about this tutorial should be the same in various other editors. The only difference is the sequence to apply the green/chroma key effect to remove green screen from your video footage.


The first step is open after effects and import your video files. You should have a video file that contains your talent shot on a green screen, the virtual set layer (this can be a still or animation), and a layer of video footage or animation to place in the virtual studio monitor (if your virtual studio has a spot for additional footage).


Now, create a composition (go to composition, new in the top menu) and drag the three files into your composition. Make sure your files are in the following order from the top. The first layer contains your talent footage shot on green screen. The next layer is your virtual set layer. The bottom layer will be the footage you would like displayed in the virtual studio.


Select the top layer with your talent shot on a green screen. Next, click effect in the toolbar, scroll down to keying, and select keylight. If you do not have keylight, you can select color key or color range to remove the green screen from your shot. Now, within the effect controls for keylight, select the eyedropper next to “screen color” and choose the green color behind your talent. This should remove the green color in the background of your video footage. If needed, you can adjust the settings in keylight to remove any color spill or rough edges from your subject.


Next, let’s remove the green from the news studio monitor  (only needed if your studio has a monitor in it) .  Select your studio layer, and click effect, keying, keylight again to create another color key on the virtual studio layer. Now, select the eyedropper next to “screen color” (in the keylight effect controls window) and chooses the green color in the monitor on your virtual set layer.  This will knock out the green in the monitor allowing you to see the footage on the bottom layer.

Now, you can adjust the layer below the studio layer to scale it into place. You can also edit the footage on the last layer to change what appears on the screen.

The last step is to render your video to combine all the elements into a final video.

However, if you want professional help with your film production and visual effects, contact VFX LA.

Film, Screenwriting, Directing, Producing


Producers are those who look for properties or ideas, which they believe, can be turned into lucrative film projects or television shows. A property, for example, might be the rights to dramatize a headline news story or retell a historical event (e.g. Apollo 13, Titanic). Ideas, on the other hand, can come from any source and are much easier to obtain, unless they’ve already been written in a treatment form and registered as copyright material. Producers may see numerous films, read a number of scripts, periodicals and trade magazines, and maintain a network of many contacts with literary editors and agents, Hollywood brokers, and publishers. They stay in the know on current events and trends because they do not want to miss a chance at the mega-hit movie for that summer, year or decade.

Producers put together the financial for a production and are responsible for all aspects of a film. These responsibilities include working closely with the director on the selection of script, casting principal roles, selecting visual effects and motion graphics companies, and identifying locations for filming — all decisions that greatly affect the cost of making the movie. Once financing is obtained for a picture, the producer works out a detailed budget and sees to it that the production costs stay within the budget. In a large production, the producer also works closely with production managers who are in charge of crews, travel, casting, and equipment.

An Independent producer may hire a large number of neophyte freelance workers on a project that requires a lot of person-hours. The producer may need only seven new people but will hire ten because he knows that some will not be able to make the grade. Usually, by the end of the first day, he will let two or three workers go and end up with the dedicated, hard-working people he really needs.


Essential Eye Vitamins

Essential Eye Vitamins - How to Improve Vision Naturally


Discover the essential eye vitamins to improve vision naturally and protect against glaucoma, cataracts and macular degeneration.

How to Improve Vision Naturally

Eye vitamins are essential to optimum vision health. They maintain healthy eyesight and help improve vision naturally.

In fact, even people who eat a balanced healthy diet aren’t getting all the vitamins they need for clear vision. To do so would mean consuming over 10,000 calories a day!

This article lists the essential eye vitamins and minerals needed to maintain peak vision health, and how to get them into the diet.

Why Take Eye Vitamins?

Essential Eye Vitamins

There are certain key nutrients that allow the eye to function at optimum levels. They nourish the eye, increase blood circulation, reduce eye strain and irritation, reduce eye pressure, strengthen capillaries, improve night vision, enhance visual acuity, and much more.

These eye care improvements have three overall benefits:

  • Improve vision naturally – for clearer vision without glasses, contacts, or eye surgery
  • Improve eye health – for less eye strain and dry eyes
  • Protect against eye diseases – like cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration

The Essential Eye Vitamins

Research shows that there are the essential vitamins, minerals and herbal supplements that are necessary for optimum eyesight. If you don’t want to take supplements, at least consume food rich in most of the vitamins and minerals:

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid – 50 mg
  • Bilberry – 80 mg
  • Chromium – 200 mcg
  • Copper Gluconate – 2 mg
  • Ginkgo Biloba – 25 mg
  • Glutathione – 10 mg
  • Lutein (containing Zeaxanthin) – 6 mg
  • N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) – 200 mg
  • Quercetin – 100 mg
  • Rutin – 100mg
  • Selenium – 50 mcg
  • Vitamin A – 25,000 IU
  • Vitamin C – 1,000 mg
  • Vitamin E – 400 IU
  • Zinc – 50 mg
  • Bioflavonoids – 250 mg

These nutrients are not all found in regular daily vitamins supplements. So people turn to special eye vitamin formulas specifically designed for nourishing the eyes.

The Effects of Eye Vitamins

Many people who take eye vitamins and supplements for better vision health report noticeable results, usually within a few days or weeks:

“My eye pressure dropped from 35 to 22 in one month.” – Margot Costenoble, Australia

“My eyes are not strained and my night vision is definitely better.” – Kimberly Konzack, USA

“My eyes also look very shiny and feel healthy. They don’t feel tired and sore now.” – Sue Barker UK

Eye Exercises to Improve Vision Naturally

Another way to improve vision naturally is with eye exercises. Unlike glasses or contact lenses, eye exercises work to improve vision at the root cause. The ultimate goal of eye exercises is to eliminate the need for corrective lenses altogether. Scientific studies have shown them to dramatically improve vision and often cure conditions including nearsightedness, farsightedness, aging vision and astigmatism.

Sunglasses with UV protectionProtect Your Eyes from Harmful UV Rays

For optimal eye health, you should wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from overexposure to the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays. Choose protective eyewear that blocks not only UVA but UVB rays as well.

Titanium glasses

Titanium Glasses

You know how some people like to keep it classy and simple. We love people who keep their spectacles old-school. What better way to adorn yourself than go a little ‘vintage’. Providing the best platform to purchase titanium eyewear, Cheap Eyeglasses Online is here at your service. Our website deals with the amazing range of prescription glasses and sunglasses. Providing you the perfect opportunity to stay old-school, our titanium glasses are definitely what you need. We have different styles and frames to make your titanium eyewear look trendier. We offer different frames in titanium for different personalities. If you want to look girly and sustain the femininity with titanium eyewear, our cat-eyes sunglasses are here to sustain your wishes! With our pinkish prescription glasses available in titanium frame, you will love to sport them all through the day!

We also give men equal opportunity to flaunt their titanium frames in different styles and colors. We have oval framed prescription glasses available in grey and gold. Nothing says class than these two colors which add stylish dimension to your look. We also have the brownish frames which fade into a slight gold near the end of the rims. This frame is extremely trendy and says a lot about your personality. What is interesting about our eyewear is its ability to make you look good. Not every eyewear brand focuses on adding style and class to your attire. On the other hand, we make sure our eyewear adds, not ‘subtracts’ from your natural flair. With our reasonable priced prescription wear and sunglasses, we want to make sure we cater everybody.

Our titanium glasses are suited for every age. They can be girly, masculine, classy and vintage for every kind of a person. With our uniqueness to represent style through your specs, there is nothing else you need!

Progressive Sunglasses – Best Styles For Men

Progressive Sunglasses

Just because you wear bifocals doesn’t mean that you have to suffer through the effects of bright, harsh sun. Progressive sunglasses will allow you to see clearly up close and far away while providing you with the UV protection of a top quality pair of sunglasses. These tinted progressive glasses are unique designed with multiple focal points within each lens. The multifocal lenses allow for optimal vision correction where you need it to see at a distance, near and at all points in between. Sometimes called “no line bifocals,” progressive glasses help you to see and look your best and when tinted function just like your favorite sunglasses.

Shop our selection of progressive sunglasses now to find the best styles for men, women and kids at the absolute best prices. Act now and use our coupon code :CA15OFF at checkout to take an additional 15% off the total cost of your progressive sunglasses.

Get the sleek look of classic aviator sunglasses with the added benefit of progressive lens technology! Featuring a sleek matte gunmetal finish, these sunglasses feature metal rims and comfortable smooth polished black plastic arms with a stylish gunmetal-toned stripe. Perfect for active wear, the lightweight sunglasses have gray-toned lenses and provide prescription lens correction for both reading and distance. The progressive lens technology eliminates that telltale bifocal line from the design.

Imagine being able to see to read and pick out distant points on the horizon while at the beach! These cool sports sunglasses bring that dream to life in a design that will have you looking your best whenever you wear them. The aviator sunglasses have a gold-toned finish that pairs handsomely with the black arms. The progressive lenses function as both distance glasses and reading glasses and are polarised to eliminate glare.

Look and see your best when you’re working out, competing in athletics or just lounging at the beach. Constructed out of durable smooth plastic, these sports sunglasses are black in color with eye-catching red accents on the ends of the arms and on the nose guards. Progressive lenses in the glasses make it possible to read and see across long distances clearly without any bifocal line. The lenses are also polarised, combating glare caused by water and snow.

These sports sunglasses for men are the perfect combination of function and fashion. Made from premium all-black plastic, the sunglasses feature polarised tinted lenses that protect your eyes from the sun and eliminate harsh glare in full sun. At the same time, the lenses function as no-line bifocals, correcting near and distance vision. The wrap-around sunglasses have tinted lens cutouts in the arms for improved peripheral vision, and there are holes in the ends of the arms for attaching the sunglasses to a string.

A sleek two-tone design makes these men’s sunglasses a smart choice for fashion wear. The look includes polished metal rims with a coffee copper-toned finish that makes a bold contrast with the black plastic arms. With these sunglasses, you’ll be able to read a menu, drive your car and perform any other task with ease, as they provide no-line bifocal vision correction and eliminate glare with polarised progressive technology. Flexible nose guards ensure a comfortable fit.

Ophthalmologists and Eye Care

ophthalmologistOphthalmologists are medical doctors who are specialized in eye care. Ophthalmologists are trained professionals who provide full eye care, they diagnose and prescribe glasses and sometimes contact lenses and they perform complex eye surgeries. A few of them are involved many types of eye research.

Ophthalmology is 4 years study in medical schools and a one year period of internship. They spend 3 years in residency, which is hospital-based training.

It is during this residency that they are specially trained in the aspects of eye care which includes prevention, diagnosis, surgical eye treatment, and medical interventions for various eye diseases. To correct problems in vision, they can also prescribe daily contact lenses that suits any skin toneOphthalmologist who wants further training takes a year or two in a specialized course to treat some of the specific areas of the eye like:



Ophthalmologists diagnose and provide treatment for corneal diseases and eyelid diseases. Their hospital training includes transplant surgery of the cornea and corneal surgery which is done to treat refractive errors.


Glaucoma is found both in adult and pediatric patients. Glaucoma is caused by an increase in the intraocular pressure which damages the optic nerve. It is treated with medicine or surgery.

Ophthalmology and eye carePediatric Ophthalmology

The medical and surgical management of the development of traumatic, inflammatory and neoplastic conditions which develops in children and this is dealt in the study of pediatric ophthalmology.

Vitreoretinal Diseases

The treatment of vitreoretinal diseases like genetic, systemic and local diseases which affect the vitreous and the retina are dealt by the ophthalmology professionals trained in this field. The methods of treatment include laser therapy, retinal detachment, vitrectomy and surgery.


Neuro-ophthalmology is the study of neurologic and ophthalmic diseases. They also deal with local pathology which affects the visual pathways and the optic nerve.

Ophthalmic Pathology

This training includes study of ophthalmology and the study of pathology. The ophthalmic pathologist is the one who examines the eye tissue specimens and adnexa as it requires the combination skills of the ophthalmologist and pathologist.

Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery

Oculoplastic surgeons are trained to combine the treatments of ophthalmic surgery with plastic surgery to treat cosmetic lid surgery and reconstructive surgery of the upper face. They are also trained to use chemotherapy, radiotherapy and chemosurgery in treating orbital and ocular diseases.

Eye care on the whole needs all kinds of specializations to treat the various types of eye diseases. Ophthalmologists are the trained professionals who can give proper eye care in addition to prescribing prescription eyeglasses as well as quality contact lenses available at discounted prices.

Hot Sunglass Trends in Summer

Sunglasses and eyeglasses are the hottest accessories for summer. Every spring brings in new trends and styles for summer sunglasses.


Hot summers are an ideal opportunity to purchase those glitzy sunglasses that one has been eyeing for a long time. Eyewear is getting increasingly popular and stylish and several well-known brands are trying their best to cash on this opportunity.

Earlier sunglasses were mainly purchased for protecting the eyes from the UV rays, but now they have become a major fashion statement.

Hot Eyeglass Trends in Summer

This summer is no different from others as most known brands are coming out with their own exclusive range of eyewear. The kind of style and trends that are being noticed are also exclusive.

Some sources point out that most brands are busy introducing “shades” to go with a person’s mood and style. Sunglasses are being promoted as hot accessories and various patterns and designs are being created.

For varied attires, a different and matching style of eyeglass can be worn. Not just the glasses, many brands have also brought out a vivid range of frames. Different colors, shapes, and sizes of sunglass frames make summers even more fascinating.

Some reports point out that frame shapes that sell like hotcakes most of the moment are a large rectangular shape and plastic square shape. The material used for the eyewear frames is also becoming trendier.

Alongside plastic, titanium and metal frames are gaining increasing popularity. The lenses that are used are equally innovative. Gradient tones and mirror-coated lenses are becoming largely popular with most fashion enthusiasts. Large oversized frames with translucent and reflective glasses are in demand.

Aviator, Retro and Wrap Stars are some sunglass trends are just as hot as they were several summers back.

Sunglasses for Eye Protection in Summer

Sunglasses are definitely one of the hottest fashion accessories of all times. But good and branded eyewear is recommended by qualified optometrists. Some optometrists purposely advise people to buy polarized lenses in summer. These glasses are capable of screening the eyes against harmful sun rays.

Polarized lenses are a hot favorite not just among the young fashion-conscious crowd. Many well-known brands are bringing out stylish polarised eyeglasses.

One report points out that some eye specialists recommend Marchon, which is a good manufacturing brand in the eyewear industry. This company is known to have licenses with eminent brands like Calvin Klein, Michael Kors, Nike etc.

The right kind of eyewear for a hot summer is something that keeps the UV radiation away from the eyes. Also, with several big brands bringing out new designs and styles of sunglasses; this accessory is definitely gaining steam over time.


Why Choose Us – Dual Benefit

Rocking Trendy Eye Wear Through

Retro Glasses – More Popular Than Ever

The 50s are back in style, especially when it comes to eyeglasses. Retro eyeglasses frames are more popular than ever, and we carry a large selection of retro frames to match your individual style. If you want the solid black frames, we’ve got those!

Style things up a bit more, though, with black with yellow rectangular glasses frames for a retro by a modern look. You could also choose a tortoise frame with silver blend earpieces, or matte black with silver earpieces.

We offer you the rectangular retro frames, and also a wide selection of oval frames. Which you choose is entirely up to you, but you don’t have to settle for just one pair! We have such a variety to choose from, and our rock-bottom prices make it easy for you to choose two or more pairs to switch between as your mood or dress changes.

Go with the traditional black retro glasses for the office, and then try out our blue rectangular glasses frame with a stylish print on the earpieces for your after work recreational time, whether at the club or at the bowling alley. You can look stylish all the time, no matter the occasion, and even keep your glasses in sync with the rest of your attire.

Want to go even wilder? We offer a great choice of plastic oval retro glasses that are pink, pink with a gold blend, and even purple-red! Want even more colour choice? We also have different colours, like yellow, red, orange, green, then a variety of zebra and leopard print retro eyeglass frames.

We are sure to have every type of retro frame you could ask for, and more, so check out our selection today.